Dani Branham

Friday, March 24, 2006

Davis EWL CyberCafe: Letting students off the hook with learning?
I think that one of the most effective ways to get students involved is the activities that we do along with content. When we are reading a book it helped me to do the group activities because it was more fun. When we are able to work in groups then different people bring their views of the book and it helps me to understand more of what is going on. If we learn stuff that will be helpful to us in the future than I think we will be more interested in the content. I feel that a good amout of the stuff that I've learned in certain classes really won't help me in the future. When it is of no use to me than I am not going to remember. I think that a lot of the ideas and content that I have learned in English class will be the most helpful for me in college and later on in life. Basically, the best way for me to learn is by group projects and learning about content that I will use in my life sometime.

34 Comments:

Blogger erinb said...

Well to start off, I truly believe that it depends on the subject/unit whether or not we, as students, are engaged in the material. It seems that the teacher also plays a big role in the factor of whether or not we are engaged. Being forced to take a class or getting a teacher that you do not work well with will make a huge difference in the learning situation. If the student has a real interest in the subject then they are going to have a better understanding of the material and are going to be engaged in the learning process and probably remember what they were taught. I know that school is not all about fun and games, but if the teacher creates a fun environment with hands on activities students are going to be more likely to participate and be enthralled with the learning. A little side note, there will be those students that are going to fuss no matter what is put in front of them. The thing that might solve all problems would be if there were no grades, but that will never happen and then students would feel even more like school is a waste of time because what would we be going for? Try knowledge!!! I do not think that we can be concerned about what we are learning unless we know that we are going to use it later in life or that it somehow relates to our lives now. So, to tell you the truth I really do not have a straight answer. I know what I like, but that only fulfills my learning experience. I like to do hands on activities or play games that relate to the material. I think that discussion works well in some cases also. Group work would be my last choice because nothing ever gets done or one person gets stuck doing everything. It is hard to get a group of people together with our schedules. Try learning, it makes for some fun!

1:27 PM  
Blogger KMGWIN said...

This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

9:49 AM  
Blogger KMGWIN said...

In order to get a student involved, the teacher has to enjoy what they are teaching. I personally feel teachers are just giving us all the information as quick as possible in order to reach cirriculum. If you slow it down a little, break it up more, get us more deeply involved with the content, we are going to be more willing to learn it. Also, hands on activites almost always get the students involved, and that can be a wide variety of things. I just think that there needs to be an understanding that the information needs to be learned and not just memorized. Let us know how we are going to use this information in the future, it becomes more appealing.

9:51 AM  
Blogger .bgrazz. said...

I truly believe that there are three major aspects to making sure that students understand taught material while being somewhat excited about it at the same time. First of all, I think that some students simply are not interested in the taught subject. I don't think there is anything you can do about that, unless, a teacher creates a teaching enviornment in which the student then becomes interested in it. Second of all, I think that who is teaching the material is a crucial part to learning it. I have had some classes in which the teacher somehow made a comfortable and fun enviornment to learn and I had a wonderful time, and I learned a lot. Some teachers have this amazing ability to engage their students and really leave a lasting impression on you. However, I have had my share of teachers that simply just give out the material. It doesn't even look like they are interested in teaching it, so why should the students be interested in learning it. So I guess it helps out when a teacher is truly passionate about what they are teaching. Finally, I believe getting the class involved with hands-on type of activities will further engage the students and make them want to learn the information. I also like it when I can relate to what is being taught, or relate it back to the real world. This makes it more relevant and makes the information stick with the student, instead of memorizing information ( where someone will forget it one hour later).

12:35 PM  
Blogger Bertram said...

I get a lot more out of a class when topics are discussed rather than just having assignments and facts handed out to be memorized. The teacher also has alot to do with my interest in the class. At Arapahoe I have had all sorts of teachers, some excited to be there and teaching with a plan in mind and others that are...not so excited. If a teacher isn't interested in what they are teaching, then why should I be? Some topics seem pointless to learn until the teacher shows me the practical value. I personally hate Spanish and saw no reason to learn it besides saying that I took three years of it on my college application. It wasn't until we filled out a map of the world and marked all the coutries that spoke Spanish that it hit me. If I ever wanted to go to any of these countries, I'd be ignorant not to learn a basic portion of their language. If students can't see a practical value in what they are learning, and the teacher is just there to get paid and has no passion in what they are doing then the students won't bother understanding the information. They will just memorize facts for the test. Not to put down on Arapahoe, there are always a couple of bad apples in a bushel, but of course I've also had a bunch of great teachers who are crazy, interested in their subjects, and genuinely caring for their students.

1:39 PM  
Blogger Deanna L. said...

I also agree that the material needs to be important to the students. If people don't care about the material already, it is hard to get them interested; not impossible, just hard.

I think a simplistic way to encourage participation and enjoyment, though this is really difficult in a public learning environment, is to allow students to look at a project through their own eyes. Some people don't like writing papers, so why should they? let them draw or act or something else.
~In my 9th grade history class, we had to a project on the Hallocaust, yes we wrote papers, but the project was our own interpretation of the events. I wrote a poem, to this day, I still own it.
~In tenth grade, when we learned about Arthurian tales in english, we got to film a video which held the basic concepts of Arthurian tales and romantic literature. We ended up writing a movie abotu Japanese feudalism. I still own a copy to this day, it was fun. It was a lot of fun.

The point is, I suppose, everyone will digest material in different settings. If they can apply it to somethign they experienced or something that's important to them, then they will enjoy it that much more. Taking from our last unit, I happen to already love poetry, but the poems were more important to me, because I wrote about something I cared for, regardless of what other people felt I should have written about.

In any case, for most students, school is about the grades, so I suppose that will not change much. And I can't really complain about English class, so all I can really say is th at if people are interested, then good. If they aren't, I guess that's their own choice. It's impossible to touch everyone all at once, it happens little by little. And when you finally can touch them, then they will never forget that moment.

3:42 PM  
Blogger Jeff T. said...

First of all, i appologize for using Dani's page.

Second, i beleive that no matter the subject, it depends on the person. If a student is shy, like at one point i used to be, or if a student just doesn't like groups, a group project to make it "fun," isn't going to be fun for that student. For a student to have a good time, the teacher is going to have to find out what type of class they have in general. If the teacher finds that the students within thier class are more "hand on" learners, then i would assign more creative projects involving the lesson. If the students are more visual, then the teacher should plan maybe some in-class reading, or powerpoints to get the concept across. The same goes for the rest of the groups of students.
However, you can't just leave the minority out. If you have a split class, which is more likely to happen, the teacher is going to need to provide many different approaches to the subject. If the teacher assigns a project, then it needs to have a many options that appeals to all the students. When doing in class activities and lectures, make sure to include many aspects of teaching. This could include powerpoints, and acting, and reading in class.

All of this put into perspective, it is always going to be hard to appeal to all of the students. But if you certainly try, then the teacher be well known throughout the school.

-Jeff T.

4:14 PM  
Blogger katie c said...

I believe that part of learning is the teacher's strategy. Not only the way in which the material is presented, but also the the way the student is involved. However, a much bigger piece of learning is the student's own desire to learn. No matter how interesting or un-interesting the material is or the teacher makes it, if the student is not interested, he/she will not take the time to learn it. I know some kids who are not only proud, but BRAG about not doing their homework! Now, a reasonable person cannot possibly blame that on the teacher's teaching style!! But back to the question. I really liked the way we talked and read through Brave New World. It allowed the student to ask his/her questions about the previous nights assignment and it was more of a peer discussion. This is because the teacher was not the only one to be asking and answering questions, the students were the main focus which allowed the conversation and ideas to go in all directions. The students were not subject to one idea or way of thinking. I like the small group assignments. Sometimes, it is more fun to work with a small group. The only problem is that sometimes only one or two people get stuck doing all of the work.

7:52 PM  
Blogger cfitzgerald said...

First of all, I agree with erinb; she stated that the subject matter plays a role in how well students react to different material. I believe that the teacher/student relationship plays the biggest role in the student’s engagement level. If the teacher doesn’t make themselves easily approachable, then the students won’t be as receptive to the material; they won’t ask questions, they won’t see a teacher outside of class, and they won’t be motivated to learn the subject matter. On the other hand, if a teacher has a policy that is too laidback, then the student’s won’t seek out answers. The students would stop working because they believe that they can slide on by without actually learning the material. There is a fine line between material that is too structured, and that that has no boundaries at all. But if you are able to maintain that line, then students will be much happier, they will learn more, and you will have helped them more as a teacher.

9:08 PM  
Blogger Jenna said...

I believe that high school students today need teathers to mix things up. Kids get bored because what they are learning does not seem relivant to them. If teachers have a way of making things seem important or interesting, they will gain the attention and a better level of participation. Things in the past that I have learned and still remember today are lessons or chapters that the teachter taught creativly. When you go to a class when day after day you do the same things and are just lectured at, you are more inclined to zone out and not listend. If teachers today want to get the attention of their atudents they need to teach relivance and do it in a creative way.

9:34 PM  
Blogger StaceyBramley said...

I believe the teacher has a huge impact on the students learning and engagement in the class material. When the teacher makes the class comfortable and enjoyable, students are more prone to learn the material. Allowing students to become active well learning, helps students become more involved in the class. Moving around and doing activities keeps the students awake, as well as, assists in helping the students remember the material learned though an activity. Many students are not paying attention while a teacher is lecturing at the front of the room. Not much information is obtained by the students from a boring lecture. When an activity is thrown in students are more attentive and involved, pounding the material into their heads. I also think the material being learned is an impact on the student’s capability to learn it. I know some material is required to be taught, but some of it can be a pick and chose type of thing. I think teachers should think about the content and how important it is to literature (or the subject), but also think about the students as well. Interest in what we learning, has an impact on how much we will pay attention and participate. This goes along the same lines of what is used to teach the material and how involved the students are. I think class discussions help impact students. Students pay attention to class discussion and are able to participate, keeping them involved and intact with the conversation and material being taught. Class discussions also allow other students input and ideas, making it more interesting and an expansion of learning. Grades have an impact on students as well. Many times students are just worried about cramming in the information before the test to get a good grade. In reality, nothing was learned or everything will soon be forgotten. Somehow the information needs to be learned well it is being taught. Students engagement through class involvement, the teacher, activities, class discussion, and other students should help students become excited to learn and take it seriously.

9:43 PM  
Blogger cheryl said...

i think different students enjoy and react differently to different ways of being tought. it also depends all the class as a whole some classes are okay with notes and lecture because its necessary but some classes are meaningless to a student if they are tedius and repeatative. its really helps me for example to have group projects and disscussion to gain insight and ideas. i thin variety is the key. if i did the same thing everyday i don't know how muchi would really take in

10:07 AM  
Blogger Eschulhof said...

High school is a learning experience not only from books but through social aspects as well. Teachers sit in front of our classrooms and lecture about thing that don't mean anything to us in our teenage years. Teachers need to ask for our feedback as well as become informed of issues and topics that we are interested about. We learn when we choose to pay attention, and we can only do so when we're into the topic that we are learning about. Also school should not only be about book related information, we should be learning more about life in general, lessons that will help us throughout our lifetime, in making decisions, becoming a well rounded person etc...It's true high school can make our break you, and has a huge impact on who we all will become. High school teachers do not realize how much of an impact they have on us, nor do they realize that certain things that we learn, we carry certain things a lot further in life because we are interested in those certain topics. Your major in college is based on what you are interested in and what you want to become. High school should be based along these lines as well. You choose your courses by what your interested in, not so many "mandatory" classes.

10:32 AM  
Blogger JenniGr said...

Having a father who is a 7th grade teacher and getting ready to be a teacher in four short years myself, figuring out how to get students actively involved and interested in what they are learning is very important to me. My dad asks me everyday for ways in which he can get his students interested in learning rather then just getting the grade. I always try to explain to him that to us students, one of the most important things is to have a teacher who is passionate and who can relate to the students. Us as students need teachers who care about us doing well, and enjoy what we're doing, instead of having the pressure to get the grade. Also i explained to my dad that hands on activities help students entrall with content and therefore the information given is easier to learn.

10:42 AM  
Blogger Aubrey said...

I think that for kids to get involved in the class, the teacher has to be crazier than the students. That is what one of my English teachers in middle school told our 7th grade class and it has stuck with me ever since. Everybody knows that no one likes a boring monotone teacher, so obviously most people are going to like a fun, excited teacher. Especially for a class like English, where we are constantly doing activities with dramas and the like, it is important that the students see the enthusiasm of the teacher. When a teacher has a great personality, the kids like the class, even if they are doing the same work as another English class with a bad teacher. Students have already made up their mind by senior year whether or not they want to pay attention and participate, but when they have a teacher that is easy to relate to and makes you laugh, they are more likely to change that habit and participate more willingly. Therefore, they learn.

2:30 PM  
Blogger kevin m said...

There are many ways that you can get the students into the learning and having them absorb the information. First you have to make it fun for the students, do some kind of activity and have them hands on, instead of them just sitting there and having them take notes and just listen to you. That gets boring and then you just drift of into another place and just forget that you are at school. So if you have something that will grab the student's attention then they will be more likely to learn something because it is something fun and they will remember that later on in life.

6:10 PM  
Blogger .EricaH. said...

I truly believe that in order to get a lot out of the material you learn, you have to enjoy what you are learning about and be interested in it. Naturally, sometimes you just may not be interested in it and that's when it is hard to stay focused. Personally, the best way for me to become or stay interested in something is it has to appeal to me. By doing activities and hands-on things, I get a lot more out of something, understand it better, and actually don't mind learning about it. I think it is important for the teacher to do activities with the material that we are learning and plan interesting class lessons. I think variation is very important. I also think that the teachers should actually care about what they are teaching and not just teach it because they have to.

8:19 PM  
Blogger nicholeg said...

The question of how to get students excited about learning has been around for hundreds of years, no doubt. And although there are a variety of answers that have been brought to the table, I don’t think there is one that has been proven any better than any of the others. Our society has changed over the years, and therefore so has students’ interests in education too. Today, in our fast-paced, ever-changing worlds, I feel the best ways of getting students excited about the material being shoved in our faces is to take an interactive approach. Student-led forums and discussions, appealing activities, real world applications, and colorful viewpoints brought from different outside sources I feel are what get students to become not only more interested in not only the class, but also the material being taught and help us retain the information better, which can only help better us for our futures.

7:11 AM  
Blogger Brian L. said...

During the high school years, students,especially seniors, are not interested in what we are forced to learn, we are more interested in what lies ahead of us and what we are going to do for the rest of our lives. Of course though we have no choice in the matter, so it would be nice if the information was presented in a fun and/or interesting way. Class discussions are always a great way to get everyone involved and at the same time burn the information into our brains and it also is good to hear from someone other than the teacher. Personally taking notes is not a very good study tool and i can almost guarantee that i will never read them, i learn much better in visual situations, so maybe to help everyones needs activities, notes, ect. should be used interchangeably as to provide a nice variety or learning options. Most of all make it interesting.

12:52 PM  
Blogger mattb said...

The problem of getting students engaged in the classroom material is a tough cookie to handle. There are many ways that a teacher can try and engage their students, but I believe that most of the reason that they don't fully engage is that they are bored by going through the same old routine every single day of their life, not because they are not interested in learning. If you want to truly interest the students in the material being taught, you must make the kids WANT to tap into the class and think about what they are learning. This can be done by using a hands-on and fun approach to activities and otherwise boring lectures. Also, sometimes the overuse of homework and overemphasis on getting good grades can burn out the students so that by the time they would get to learning, they are already tired and stressed out from all the memorizing and worrying they have done. Finally, class discussions and group projects can always engage the students, and I also believe that they definitely help the students to understand to a greater extent the material being given to them. Most of my favorite classes throughout the past few years haven't been because they were easy and a blow-off, but because they were interesting and they made me feel like I was actually going to school for a reason, not just to memorize useless facts I will never use in life.

6:16 PM  
Blogger metter said...

Getting and keeping students interested in what they are learning about is a tricky subject, especially when it is 1st or 2nd hour. However, I can say from personal experience that I am more interesed in a group activity rather than a individual assignment. I will admit that i have been known to zone out for periods of time during class when what I am learning about is not interesting to me. I also tend to be less interested in topics that are not practical to me. If I know that what I am learning about will eventually help me out in life, I will pay more attention and will be more interested. So in conclusion, I feel that group work and projects are a much more effective way to keep students interested in what they are learnig about.

9:35 PM  
Blogger SamMc said...

I agree that teachers need to be interested in the things they are teachers. Which makes sense because otherwise why would they be teaching the subject, right? Anyways, I really enjoy when teachers are very resonsive to their students and when they also enjoy hearing students opinions. When a teacher stands in front of a classroom full of second-semester seniors and lectures all hour, 2-3 days a weeks, we will inevitably loose attention. Our attention spans are slowly dwindling down, soon to be no more. It's nice to be able to get out of our chairs are move around and interact with eachother. Engaging and connecting with your students I think is the most impacting part of any teacher.

9:44 PM  
Blogger gina said...

I believe that to get students engaged something interesting must be put in front of them. If the unit is not interesting to the student, they will not be motivated to learn. I think that grades play a key role in the amount that kids are willing to learn. Many learn and study only what will be on the test and fail to grasp other concepts within the unit. I know that, for me, sitting down and hearing what others think about the topic encourages me be open-minded and see other sides of the book/unit that the class is discussing. I think that group projects benefit the discussion and learning. I also believe that the way in which the teacher presents the information affects the motivation to learn. If the information is presentd in an unique way it does not feel like the same routine, the students are engaged and learning because they are presented with something interesting.

10:21 PM  
Blogger Kevin said...

Well, I think it is very rare to find teachers that successfully engage their students in what is being presented in the class. Most teachers use the fear of bad grades and failure to shove thsir students in a direction that forces them to achive wihtout making emotional connections or forming opinions or even learning anything useable in the first place. I think students participate most actively when teachers allopw them to express their opinions in discussion rather than only asking them to to regurgitate trivial information. Students aren't going to take much out of an hour-long lecture and notes session but give them a role in the learning process and i think that they will enjoy it more and actually learn the subject in its entirity rather than bits and pieces of pre-determined pieces of information. Boo-ya

7:12 AM  
Blogger Kit said...

as a student i find it very challenging sometimes when a teacher limits student interaction. so of the most diffcult classes ive had has been where a teacher puts an overhead on the screen and makes the students copy down notes. if a teacher forces a studen to interact in a class room it will force the student to dig deeper and gain a greater knowledge of the topic.A perfect example of this is fishbowls. True, many students cant stand these but it creates an enviorment where the student must come prepared and interact with their peers. Not only does the interaction make them prepare but it could possibly give them a greater insight of the topics from others point of view. Even thought class interaction may not be perfered by all students it is a positive way to increase productivity in the class room.

7:19 AM  
Blogger sarahcs4 said...

I believe that students do struggle very much in many classes to willingly engage themselves into the curriculum and to retain the information taught in the class. I believe that in order for students to find a real interest in what is being taught,they much physically participate in classroom discussion s or activities. As I am a kinesthetic learner,that absolutely works for me. Along with that,the attitude of the students greatly reflects the attitude of the teacher. If the teacher obviously does not want to be there, the students will feel the same, and then have wasted their timemindlessly memorizing the class information.

7:30 AM  
Blogger Bobbi! said...

First of all, Arapahoe is smack dab in the middle of suburbia, leaving little room for excitement as it is. The same old drab, white and yellowish walls, stale green tinted chalkboards, and almost always no windows, really is not the best setting to try and keep us focused in. I personally, do what I have to do to get my credits and graduate, in classes such as Algebra, Biology, and History, I do not remember a thing as soon as that last bell of the semester rings. In classes that I am really dedicated to such as English and art, I will do anything to express myself to my fullest capability through the work I do. I notice that movies help the understanding of some literary material, to do both at the same time is very helpfull to the memory aspect of the learning process. I also know that shakeing things up a bit, such as outside class, library trip, scavenger hunts, and other things really help me wakeup and focus alot more than slouching in the ancient desks. Help us use our sense of humors, creativity, and imagination, when we learn.

11:48 AM  
Blogger Kelan H said...

I agree with others when they say that it depends what subject is being taught related to the student’s interest in learning. It is easier to learn and soak up information if you actually want to know it. What is tricky for a teacher to do is teach a subject to someone who is not interested. In order to do that, the teacher should relate the subject to something the student actually does like. Since I like wrestling, I would want a teacher to somehow relate a boring topic to that. In order to relate the topics, a teacher must have fun with it and get creative.

1:52 PM  
Blogger abrandts said...

I think that finding teachers who can truly engage the students in listening and paying attention is very hard to come by. It starts with the teacher. He or she needs to be interested and excited about what they are teaching. A strong personality also helps in getting the students attention and affects their willingness to listen. The material that is being taught is also important because certain students will not be interested no matter what teacher they have because they have no care for the subject. The key is to make the students excited to be at school, and actually learning. The only way to do this is by not lecturing all the time, have interesting material for the students to actual have concern in, and then get them involved in one way or another. Games and hands on activites always are more entertaining to students and keep them from falling asleep or zoning out. Creativity is how students will get engaged and help the students not to forget the material they just learned.

7:51 PM  
Blogger xander d'elliott said...

I believe there are many factors that go into whether or not a student is engaged in what they are learning. First of all, i don't believe that the subject matters at all. Be it history, English or math, any subject can be made interesting and intriguing by the teacher, as long as they know how to do it. The main reason students are not interested in learning is there is always so much busy work associated with it. If learning was only based on us knowing the knowledge and facts and understanding a concept, and we didn't need to complete a 3000 word definitions packet that takes 7 hours then things would be different. There is far too much busy work done in schools today, and much of it is not helpful and is detrimental to our attention span and desire to learn. Teachers should also just know what they are teaching well but also enjoy teaching it. Pour example, Mr. Bohem knows his Gov. inside and outside, but i would guess, based on the way that he teaches that subject that he dislikes it or has no interest in it. If a teacher shows a love for a subject it is easier to rub off on a student. Teachers need to pick activities that are engaging to the student and challenge them mentally, to rise up to higher learning. Mrs. Davis does a great job of this and used many good techniques during the Brave New World section. More teachers should use her teaching methods and put away the medieval curriculum. Mr. Meyers also does a good job of this. He is not an easy teacher by any means but still challenges his students in ways that make them enjoy what they are doing, or at least the subject they are learning. The end.

6:10 AM  
Blogger Erica said...

I agree with everyone else in saying that to truly have kids that are interested in the class, the students themselves have to be interested in what they are learning. I think that when students are required to take certain classes that they have no interest in, then they will be less inclined to actually take the time and learn the material and instead do the work for the grade. I also think that sometimes the material that is the most important is not being focused on enough because of restrictions in the classroom, either because of time or because of a madated ciriculum that teachers are forced to teach. I think that by having open disscusions in the classroom and working on valuable assignments, not just busy work, it will help us to be more interested in the class. I know that if I peronally learned the basic skills of each of my classes and didn't have to spend so much time on busy work and could focus on studying and actually learning the material, I would know alot more than I do. I believe that their are also teachers who hate kids and don't truly enjoy their job, which doesn't increase students participtaion or willingess to learn, I like to take teachers i know enjoy teaching and helping students actually learn more. If all of the teachers relaxed more and weren't forced to go by a strict ciriculum that is unhelpful and doesn't really teach us valuable information, then most students would be more willing to learn.

3:33 PM  
Blogger dawn said...

I believe that to get students attention they need something to relate to, something interesting. Whether you take a book or lesson and have them relate it to their lives, or you teach them the lesson from more of a students perspective. If the unit is not interesting the students will not learn. So how do you accomplish this? Well you can try incorporating games or activities, or maybe even put the students into groups and allow them to "teach" the class about a book they read together. Get the students involved in the units and this will help the student learn, not just memorize notes.

7:52 PM  
Blogger dawn said...

I believe that to get students attention they need something to relate to, something interesting. Whether you take a book or lesson and have them relate it to their lives, or you teach them the lesson from more of a students perspective. If the unit is not interesting the students will not learn. So how do you accomplish this? Well you can try incorporating games or activities, or maybe even put the students into groups and allow them to "teach" the class about a book they read together. Get the students involved in the units and this will help the student learn, not just memorize notes.

7:53 PM  
Blogger MichelleY said...

I think to get students engaged in books or in class for that matter, is to make it interesting. And that is easier said than done. For me personally, I need to be forced to participate. I like the Fisch bowl, I get to hear my classmate's opinions and they get to hear mine and by putting all those interpretations together you get a better understading of what is going on. For other people, they may hate that and rather just read the book on their own.
I think doing projects is a great way for students to get involved because, you get to do it yourself. You research everything and put all the gathered information together and present it. However, it's a double-edged sword because you get the information yourself, but what if you are the only one getting all the information and no one else is doing anything to participate in the project? It becomes frustrating and you do not get the grade you deserve, you get the grade your group deserves.
Basically, to get students more involved with learning is to have them actively participate.

9:19 PM  

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